Disease and Diagnosis- Technology

In the past year, many new technologies have been discovered and created. Many of these technologies are medical applications that are used to treat diseases and for diagnosis.

Kyla and I researched the various technologies used for disease and diagnosis. We learned about Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR), Magneto Optical Methods, and Recombinant DNA technology. WIth all the new technologies, many ethical issues come to question.

One of the breakthrough technologies caught our eye: the Face2Gene app. Click here to learn more about face2gene.

Check out our slideshow below!

Observing the Stages of Mitosis Lab

Title: Observing the Stages of Mitosis Lab

Purpose: Observe roots tips to determine how long cells spend in each phase of the cell cycle.

Introduction: Mitosis is a type of cell division that goes through the stages of the cell cycle: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, in result of two identical daughter cells. The daughter cells produced in Mitosis have the same number and type of chromosomes as their parent cell. Interphase, which occurs in the cell cycle, is when the cell is doing its job and the DNA is replicating. Chromatin is not yet condensed into chromosomes during interphase, chromosomes are also not yet distinctly visible. During prophase, the cell membrane starts to break down and the chromosomes condense, but are not organized. In metaphase, the chromosomes line up along the cell’s equator while the spindle fibers continue to grow. Then in Anaphase, the chromatids are being pulled apart by the spindle fibers and are found on opposite sides of the cell.  Finally, the nuclear membrane starts to divide and form around each set of chromosomes. The cell splits and the two daughter cells are formed at the end of Telophase, Cytokinesis. Plants grow at their roots; the root cells are constantly dividing in order to grow. A root tip was chosen to be observed because it contains cells at different stages of the cell cycle, since each cell divides independently from other cells.

Materials:

  • Microscope
  • Prepared slides of onion root tip

Methods:

  1. Set up microscope. Start with low power objective in position with diaphragm open to the widest setting
  2. Place side of onion root tip on microscope and focus the microscope to get a clear view of the onion root tip. Focus starting with lowest power objective, then move to higher objectives once focused.
  3. Observe box-like cells arranged in rows.
  4. Identify what stage of mitosis each cell is in by appearance. Count how many cells are in Telophase, Anaphase, Metaphase, Prophase, then Interphase.
  5. Convert into percentages (Total # Cells/# Cells n Stage). Record Data

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Analysis: I included Quinlyn’s Data to show how my data differed and should be excluded from the total class average. The data I collected only included data from 1 cross section, whereas other students collected data from 2 or 3 cross sections, making the percentages differ. 2 to 3 cross sections samples provide more accurate data than data from only 1 cross section because more data allows for margin of error.  From the class average data, 81% of cells were found in interphase, 12.46% in prophase, 1.65% in in metaphase, 1.37% in anaphase, and 2.03% in telophase. Conclusion:

Conclusion: Most of the cells were found in interphase, which is logical because that is when the cell is doing its specified job.  Prophase has the second highest amount of cells in that stage because the cell is condensing long strands of chromatin into small coiled chromosomes, forming the mitotic spindle,  and breaking down the nuclear envelope. The stages of Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase are completed very quickly so the cell can finally split and continue to be productive and do its job. Within the class data, some errors could have occurred from  human error (miscounting the amount of cells) or having cross sections where the chromosomes were cut off and could not provide enough information. For my data particularly, the percentages of 1 cross section differs from the percentage of  3 cross section averages. I had to disclude the observations found from the first cross section I examined because the slide was unclear and the nuclear envelope and chromosomes were not visible. It is unnecessary to include data from unclear onion root tip sample slides because they would not provide enough usable information. Each root tip sample is a cross section, so it is possible that the chromosomes could have been cut and only found in the other cross section half.

Evidence that supports that mitosis is a continuous process rather than a series of events is that each cell is hard to differentiate between each stage because it is constantly changing.  The onion cell had 4x chromosomes at the end of interphase because DNA is doubled and is preparing to split later on. At the end of telophase, there are two cells, each with 2x chromosomes.  

After meiosis, there would be 1x chromosome in each sex cell because the cells start with 4x, then divides twice throughout the process (4 sex cells with 1x chromosomes).  If this onion would complete the process of sexual reproduction, 2x chromosomes would be found in the zygotes that are produced, because of a sperm(1x) and an egg(1x) create a zygote.

Good Taste, No Waste: A Farm

Check it out on the OpenIDEO website: Click here to check out my idea on the OpenIDEO website!
My idea to prevent food waste is a community farm where people donate plant and food scraps to feed pigs and chickens in exchange for fresh fruits, vegetables, and/or eggs. People could also rent out the goats to eat their weeds and buy goats milk. The farm is a place to bring in old food and leave with something fresh and new!The plant and food scraps are first used to feed the chickens and goats, then excess scraps are put to use in creating compost. The compost is used to fertilize the fruits and vegetables in the garden, which are all accessible to the community. Ideally, people living within 3 miles from the farm could participate, ensuring that less food is wasted among the community.

To start off, the farm could have 25 chickens (per .5 acre) and 3 goats (per .3 acre), a fruit and vegetable garden with the remaining available space, and a trading area where people drop off their plant and food scraps for something in exchange.

What early, lightweight experiment might you try out in your own community to find out if the idea will meet your expectations?

I could visit a community garden and would collect data about how many people invest time and efforts into the gardens and take note of the amount of people who do not participate in the garden, but would be interested in swapping in food scraps for something new. We could start small, by adding chicken coops to community gardens, and collecting data about how many people bring plant scraps in exchange of eggs per week.

What skills, input or guidance from the OpenIDEO community would be most helpful in building out or refining your idea?

Some guidance from the OpenIDEO community that would help me in fulfilling the plan is advice on how to share a survey about interest in the farm to an entire community and finding a place to start the farm and getting the idea approved by the city. The OpenIDEO community could also help me find what cities would want a community farm and an idea to to find out the number people who would contribute. I also need an idea on how the person managing the farm could make a sustainable living.

Tell us about your work experience:

I am a senior in high school student in AP biology. I have taken conceptual physics, biology, and chemistry throughout my high school career. IDEO was introduced to us during our AP Biology ecology unit; we are currently focussing on the issue of food waste.

This idea emerged from

  • An Individual

How far along is your idea?

  • It’s just been created! It’s existed for 1 day – 1 month